Global Citizenship Guides 2022

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How to Get Luxembourg Citizenship in 2022?

It’s an interesting way into the EU to get Luxembourg citizenship. There are several different paths to get citizenship. 

According to the latest Henley Passport Index ranking, the Luxembourgish passport is one of the most powerful globally, providing visa-free access to 189 countries.

It depends on your case, but most people need to complete a language proficiency test and the Living Together course or test to become citizens. In certain circumstances, an individual can automatically become a Luxembourg citizen. For example, through heritage, adoption, or birth in Luxembourg.

Table of Contents


Who is eligible to apply for Luxembourg citizenship?

You can apply for citizenship in several circumstances. However, the criteria for applying will differ, and some will require you to take a language proficiency test (spoken test to A2 level, listening test to B1 level). The Living Together in Luxembourg course or test (rights of citizens, state and local institutions, and the history of Luxembourg).

How to get Luxembourg citizenship in 2022?

You can complete the process of becoming a Luxembourg citizen voluntarily in two main ways. Citizenship is obtained through naturalization, and citizenship is obtained by option.

How to Get Luxembourg Citizenship by Naturalization?

Anyone from a third country who can satisfy the key requirements can apply for Luxembourg citizenship by naturalization. The requirements are as follows: 

  • You’re over 18 years old. 
  • At least five years of continuous legal residence in Luxembourg (The year immediately preceding the application for citizenship must be uninterrupted) 
  • You possess a basic knowledge of Luxembourgish (A2 spoken, B1 comprehension). 
  • Having taken the Living together in Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg course or passing the exam, you know Luxembourgish civics.  
  • You have not lied, concealed important information, or acted fraudulently during the naturalization process. 
  • Neither do you have a criminal record that includes a term of imprisonment of 12 months or more or a suspended term of imprisonment of 24 months or more.  

When you have met all the requirements, you will need to gather the following documents for your application: 

  • Birth certificate copy
  • Passport copy 
  • A signed and dated biographical questionnaire 
  • Documents that confirm your criminal record from your country of citizenship, as well as from any other countries where you lived as a minor in the 15 years before applying for Luxembourg citizenship 
  • Luxembourgish language certificate of completion 
  • The results of the “Vivre ensemble au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg” exam, or a certificate of attendance 

You then submit these documents to the Luxembourg civil registry. This will be reviewed by the Ministry of Justice’s Nationality Office. 

Your documents might need to be resubmitted if they determine yours are insufficient or not appropriate in some way. The Minister of Justice will grant a naturalization application (or rejected) within eight months of submission. Generally, this timeline is closely followed. Sometimes, it may take less time than eight months.

How to Get Luxembourg Citizenship by Option?

Citizenship by option is available to non-Luxembourgish nationals in 10 specific situations. Those situations include:  

  • Adults whose parents, adoptive parents, or grandparents are or were Luxembourgish 
  • Luxembourgish parents of a minor  
  • Getting married to a Luxembourgish national  
  • Luxembourgers over 12 years of age born in Luxembourg  
  • Luxembourgers who have completed seven years of schooling  
  • Adults who have lived legally in Luxembourg for at least 20 years  
  • Adults who have fulfilled their obligations under the Welcome and Integration Contract  
  • Adults under the age of 18 who settled in Luxembourg  
  • Adults who are stateless, refugees, or are under subsidiary protection  
  • Soldiers who volunteered  

The naturalization route is likely to be better if none of the above scenarios apply to you. This option is also faster than option 6, which requires 20 years of legal residence in Luxembourg.

Luxembourg residency through investment 

Luxembourg does not offer citizenship by investment, but it does offer investors a way to become residents of the country. After five years, they can apply for citizenship. The following types of investments are available:

  • A new business in Luxembourg – Investment of EUR 500,000 together with the creation of 5 jobs
  • Existing businesses – EUR 500,000 investment in a Luxembourg-based existing business
  • Structure of management and investment – EUR 3 million 
  • A EUR 20 million bank deposit, held at a Luxembourg bank for five years 

Please note that the Luxembourg government requires a detailed application for these residencies by investment pathways. To become a citizen, one must still wait five years, just like passive income. 

Furthermore, resident investors must spend at least six months a year physically present in Luxembourg to maintain their residency status. We don’t see a benefit from obtaining Luxembourg citizenship via residence by investment.

Luxembourg citizenship Application Costs

Luxembourg’s naturalization process is free of charge, unlike many other countries, although there may be associated costs for preparing the necessary documents.

What is the process for getting a Luxembourg residence permit? 

You’ll need to live in Luxembourg for at least five years to qualify for Luxembourg citizenship by naturalization or investment. Citizens of non-EU countries need a residence permit to stay longer than the standard 90 days available to tourists. You can obtain residency in Luxembourg in a wide variety of ways, including through employment, self-employment, or family reunification.  

There’s a specific residency route available for people who have sufficient income from outside Luxembourg but don’t work there (e.g., from dividends from an online business based outside the country).  

It is referred to as residency for private reasons. The EU citizenship journey in Luxembourg is the best route for remote workers and online business owners. We will discuss this residency pathway in more detail in the next section. 

Luxembourg residency for private reasons 

If you plan on remaining in Luxembourg for at least three months and have enough income to support yourself, you should consider this option. It would be best to have a residence permit for at least five years for Luxembourg citizenship, which can be renewed after three years.  

There are two stages to obtaining a residency permit.  

First stage: Before entering the country: 

  • Request a temporary stay permit from the Immigration Directorate.  
  • Upon receiving a temporary authorization to stay, apply for a Type D visa if you are from a country that requires a visa to enter Luxembourg.  

Stage Two: After arriving in the country: 

  • Let your new commune know that you have arrived.  
  • Make sure you’re medically fit.  
  • Fill out the residence permit application.  
  • If you want to get residency for private reasons, you need to support yourself without having to work or claim benefits within Luxembourg.  

Your ministry will evaluate your resources according to their regularity and nature when you apply. They will also compare the amount to EUR 2,201.93, the current unskilled minimum wage. You can use a pension certificate, a bank statement, or similar documentation to prove your resources.

What will happen next?

Once the Ministry of Justice approves the application and there are no objections, you will be given Luxembourgish citizenship after four months.

Benefits of Luxembourg Citizenship 

Luxembourg’s citizenship has several advantages due to its membership in the EU. Having EU citizenship gives you full rights in the EU, including freedom of movement, which lets you live, work, study, and retire in any part of the EU.

EU citizens have the right to vote and run for office at national elections in their home state. In addition, they can participate in EU-wide decisions and vote in European elections. 

As a citizen of Luxembourg, you have a greater influence over the country’s politics while also gaining more job opportunities. 

According to the Henley Passport Index, the Luxembourg passport is highly regarded. Luxembourg passport holders have visa-free access to 190 countries, ranking fourth behind Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Germany. 

Furthermore, Luxembourg is a neutral and uncontroversial country, so your Luxembourg passport will likely be accepted at border crossings. Dual citizenship is also allowed in Luxembourg, so you don’t need to give up your existing citizenship (and can add more if you choose).

Frequently Asked Questions

How long does it take to become a citizen of Luxembourg?

As of the 1st of April 2017, a new law allows Luxembourg nationals who have lived in the country for at least 5 years to acquire citizenship by naturalization.

What do I need to do to obtain dual citizenship in Luxembourg?

A person can acquire Luxembourgish citizenship by naturalization after residence for at least five years, including a continuous one-year period before applying for citizenship. A language test is also required.

Is it possible to become a permanent resident of Luxembourg?

A permanent residence permit can only be granted if you have lived in the country for a continuous period of at least 5 years. It is usually sufficient to have a registration certificate from five years ago.

How to get luxembourg citizenship by marriage?

Couples who have been married for three years may be eligible for naturalization as dual citizens of Luxembourg after three years. However, they will need to spend time in Luxembourg to qualify. You cannot obtain this citizenship by spending time in another European country.